Translation, cultural adaptation and reproducibility of the Oxford Shoulder Score questionnaire for Brazil, among patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Although shoulder questionnaires validated for Brazil do exist, none of them are aimed at populations with rheumatic disease. We believe that the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) may be useful in this population. The objective of this study was to translate the OSS, adapt it to Brazilian culture and test its reproducibility.

How do we fix bad science?

Independently verifying research can help science regain its credibility, argues Laurie Zoloth. His paper: "Why Most Published Research Findings Are False", was published in August 2005, in PLOS Medicine. It became one of the journal’s most-cited articles. While climate sceptics, anti-vaccination campaigners and the rest of the pseudo-science community have dined out on this paper, arguably it has been a shot in the arm for science.

Promises, Promises, and Cell Lines: Life Sciences Researchers Talk About the Obvious Solution—Cell-Line Authentication—but They Fail To Implement It

According to a 2013 report from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, $115 billion is spent annually in the United States on life science research. Fifty percent of this total is spent on preclinical research, half of which—$28 billion—is not reproducible.