With concerns over research reproducibility on the rise, systematic replications of published science have become an important tool to estimate the replicability of findings in specific areas. Nevertheless, such initiatives are still uncommon in biomedical science, and have never been performed at a national level. The Brazilian Reproducibility Initiative is a multicenter, systematic effort to assess the reproducibility of the country’s biomedical research by replicating between 50 and 100 experiments from Brazilian life sciences articles. The project will focus on a set of common laboratory methods, performing each experiment in multiple institutions across the country, with the reproducibility of published findings analyzed in the light of interlaboratory variability. The results, due in 2021, will allow us not only to estimate the reproducibility of Brazilian biomedical science, but also to investigate if there are aspects of the published literature that can be used to predict it.