When scientists are able to recreate earlier research results, published by other scientists, the research is considered reproducible. But what happens when the results don’t match? It means that the initial research is non-reproducible. Reproducibility, or non-reproducibility, of scientific experiments seems straightforward; it implies that an experimental result is either valid or invalid. In fact, researchers affiliated with Stanford University, Tufts University, and University of Ioannina in Greece concluded in 2005 that a majority of all research findings are false. How do those invalid results end up in scientific papers? A group of Stanford researchers concluded that, in many cases, bias is to blame.