Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are a critical component of translational/preclinical biomedical research due to the strong similarities between NHP and human physiology and disease pathology. In some cases, NHPs represent the most appropriate, or even the only, animal model for complex metabolic, neurological, and infectious diseases. The increased demand for and limited availability of these valuable research subjects requires that rigor and reproducibility be a prime consideration to ensure the maximal utility of this scarce resource. Here, we discuss a number of approaches that collectively can contribute to enhanced rigor and reproducibility in NHP research.